The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of India. They consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Indian Coast Guard, Supported by Paramilitary forces (Assam Rifles and Special Frontier Force) and various inter-service institutions such as the Strategic Forces Command. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. The Indian Armed Forces are under the management of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), which is led by the Union Cabinet Minister of Defence.
The President of the Republic of India is the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The Indian armed forces have been engaged in a number of major military operations, including the Indo-Pakistani wars of 1947, 1965 and1971, the Sino-Indian War, the 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish, the Kargil War, and the Siachen conflict among others. India honours its armed forces and military personnel annually on Armed Forces Flag Day, 7 December.
Since 1962, the IAF has maintained close military relations with Russia, including cooperative development on programs such as the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) and the Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA). The Indian armed forces are steadily undergoing modernization, with investments in such areas as a missile defence system and a nuclear triad.
The Department of Defence Production & Supplies of the Ministry of Defence is responsible for the indigenous production of equipment used by the Indian Armed Forces. It comprises the 41 Indian Ordnance Factories under control of the Ordnance Factories Board and 8 Defence PSUs namely, HAL, BEL, BEML, BDL, MDL, GSL, GRSE, Midhani. The Indian Armed Forces are currently the world's largest arms importer, accounting for more than 9% of global import, with Russia, Israel, and to some extent, France being the primary foreign suppliers of equipment.
The country is expected to spend around US$112 billion between 2010 and 2016 on military equipment, most of which will be imported.